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Batman Figure LOT DC comic Poison Ivy Catwoman Mr Freeze Robin Joker Penguin oop

Batman Figure LOT DC comic Poison Ivy Catwoman Mr Freeze Robin Joker Penguin oop cost US $ 19.99
Price of Batman Figure LOT DC comic Poison Ivy Catwoman Mr Freeze Robin Joker Penguin oop in China is Chinese Yuan 122.284827 CNY,
Price of Batman Figure LOT DC comic Poison Ivy Catwoman Mr Freeze Robin Joker Penguin oop in India is Indian Rupee 1224.9872 INR,
Price of Batman Figure LOT DC comic Poison Ivy Catwoman Mr Freeze Robin Joker Penguin oop in United States is United States Dollar 19.99 USD,
Price of Batman Figure LOT DC comic Poison Ivy Catwoman Mr Freeze Robin Joker Penguin oop in Indonesia is Indonesian Rupiah 241259.31 IDR,
Price of Batman Figure LOT DC comic Poison Ivy Catwoman Mr Freeze Robin Joker Penguin oop in Brazil is Brazilian Real 49.287344 BRL,
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Large mix of action figures. Everything shown in photos is included in auction. Please take time to see pics. these are not brand new but most are in very nice shape.

Cool lot for the collector or just to play with.
Nice gently played with condition. See pictures for best description.
Figures are loose and not brand new nor mint. May have paint wear. Nothing extremely terrible. May need to be cleaned a bit and or dusty from display. Some have may have minor looser limbs/heads etc.
Ivy has a bit more paint wear than the others.
If they came with other accessories I have no idea what they are, and do not have them in this lot. SEE OTHER LOTS etc!!!!!
They have been played with and may require some additional cleaning. Please look at pictures for more details. They only come with the accessories shown in the pictures. What you see is what you will receive. I have tried to describe these as best I can, but I may have missed something. Please look closely at the pictures and see my other toy auctions!!!!!!!

Again, some have minor wear and you can see any threw pictures. They have so very much life left and will last a extremely long time. These were made for kids to love and will be around for many years to come.

Super RARE!!!

You and or your kids will very much enjoy!!!

Everything shown is included. Gently displayed and used Batman figures and more. Not brand new, but very nice. Little to no serious paint wear. See all pics. These do not come in the package and only what is shown is included. Take some time to check out all of the photos to see the many details as they are considered part of the description. Large lot in nice shape. gently used. Not all are mint, but most are beyond nice. Some have light play wear. Large lot of figures and all are included

Please look at photos in detail!
Winning Bidder to pay for shipping in the United States (US). I am not accepting international bidders at this time. I apologize in advance. Paypal only please. I combine shipping on all items won the same day. Items shipped within three business days after cleared payment. USA ONLY!

In the unlikely event an item is damaged during transit please contact us so we can remedy the problem. If your item is returned to me for faulty address information, you will be required to pay for the item to be reshipped.
All items are packaged with great care and securely as I pack them with the thought in mind of me being the customer opening it.
All items are shipped FAST!!!!

Feedback will always be appreciated and I am very open to checking my emails multiple times each day in the event of any concerns.

Thank you for visiting my item and I hope to do business with you in the future.

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Marvel Worldwide Inc., commonly referred to as Marvel Comics and formerly Marvel Publishing, Inc. and Marvel Comics Group, is an American publisher of comic books and related media. In 2009, The Walt Disney Company acquired Marvel Entertainment, Marvel Worldwide's parent company.Marvel started in 1939 as Timely Publications, and by the early 1950s had generally become known as Atlas Comics. Marvel's modern incarnation dates from 1961, the year that the company launched The Fantastic Four and other superhero titles created by Stan Lee, Jack Kirby, Steve Ditko, and many others.Marvel counts among its characters such well-known properties as Spider-Man, the X-Men, Wolverine, the Fantastic Four, Iron Man, the Hulk, Thor, Captain America, the Silver Surfer, Daredevil, Doctor Strange, the Guardians of the Galaxy, and the Avengers and antagonists such as the Green Goblin, Doctor Octopus, Kingpin, Magneto, Doctor Doom, Loki, Galactus, Thanos, the Abomination, and the Red Skull. Most of Marvel's fictional characters operate in a single reality known as the Marvel Universe, with locations that mirror real-life cities. Characters such as Spider-Man, the Fantastic Four, the Avengers, Daredevil, and Dr. Strange are based in New York City,[1][2] whereas the X-Men have historically been based in Salem Center, New York,[3][4][5] and the Hulk's stories have usually been set in the American Southwest.[6]In 2013 Marvel held a 33.5% share of the comics market, compared to its competitor DC Comics' 30.33% share. By comparison, the companies held 40.81% and 29.94% shares in 2008.[7]Contents1 History1.1 Timely Publications1.2 Atlas Comics1.3 Marvel Comics1.4 Cadence Industries ownership1.5 Marvel Entertainment Group ownership1.6 Marvel Enterprises1.7 Disney conglomerate unit2 Officers2.1 Publishers2.2 Editors-in-chief2.3 Executive Editor3 Ownership4 Offices5 Marvel characters in other media5.1 Films5.2 Television programs5.3 Video games5.4 Prose novels5.5 Role-playing games5.6 Theme parks6 Imprints6.1 Defunct7 See also8 Footnotes9 References10 Further reading11 External linksHistoryTimely PublicationsMain article: Timely ComicsMarvel Comics 1 (Oct. 1939), the first comic from Marvel precursor Timely Comics. Cover art by Frank R. Paul.Martin Goodman founded the company later known as Marvel Comics under the name Timely Publications in 1939,[8] publishing comic books under the imprint Timely Comics.[9] Goodman, a pulp magazine publisher who had started with a Western pulp in 1933, was expanding into the emerging—and by then already highly popular—new medium of comic books. Launching his new line from his existing company's offices at 330 West 42nd Street, New York City, he officially held the titles of editor, managing editor, and business manager, with Abraham Goodman officially listed as publisher.[8]Timely's first publication, Marvel Comics 1 (cover dated Oct. 1939), included the first appearance of Carl Burgos' android superhero the Human Torch, and the first generally available appearance of Bill Everett's anti-hero Namor the Sub-Mariner, among other features. The issue was a great success, with it and a second printing the following month selling, combined, nearly 900,000 copies.[10] While its contents came from an outside packager, Funnies, Inc., Timely by the following year had its own staff in place.The company's first true editor, writer-artist Joe Simon, teamed with artist and emerging industry notable Jack Kirby to create one of the first patriotically themed superheroes,[11] Captain America, in Captain America Comics 1 (March 1941) It, too, proved a major sales hit, with sales of nearly one million.[10]While no other Timely character would achieve the success of these "big three", some notable heroes—many of which continue to appear in modern-day retcon appearances and flashbacks—include the Whizzer, Miss America, the Destroyer, the original Vision, and the Angel. Timely also published one of humor cartoonist Basil Wolverton's best-known features, "Powerhouse Pepper",[12][13] as well as a line of children's funny-animal comics featuring popular characters like Super Rabbit and the duo Ziggy Pig and Silly Seal.Goodman hired his wife's cousin,[14] Stanley Lieber, as a general office assistant in 1939.[15] When editor Simon left the company in late 1941,[16] Goodman made Lieber—by then writing pseudonymously as "Stan Lee"—interim editor of the comics line, a position Lee kept for decades except for three years during his military service in World War II. Lee wrote extensively for Timely, contributing to a number of different titles.Goodman's business strategy involved having his various magazines and comic books published by a number of corporations all operating out of the same office and with the same staff.[9] One of these shell companies through which Timely Comics was published was named Marvel Comics by at least Marvel Mystery Comics 55 (May 1944). As well, some comics' covers, such as All Surprise Comics 12 (Winter 1946–47), were labeled "A Marvel Magazine" many years before Goodman would formally adopt the name in 1961.[17]Atlas ComicsMain article: Atlas Comics (1950s)The post-war American comic market saw superheroes falling out of fashion.[18] Goodman's comic book line dropped them for the most part and expanded into a wider variety of genres than even Timely had published, featuring horror, Westerns, humor, funny animal, men's adventure-drama, giant monster, crime, and war comics, and later adding jungle books, romance titles, espionage, and even medieval adventure, Bible stories and sports.Goodman began using the globe logo of the Atlas News Company, the newsstand-distribution company he owned,[19] on comics cover-dated November 1951 even though another company, Kable News, continued to distribute his comics through the August 1952 issues.[20] This globe branding united a line put out by the same publisher, staff and freelancers through 59 shell companies, from Animirth Comics to Zenith Publications.[21]Atlas, rather than innovate, took a proven route of following popular trends in television and movies—Westerns and war dramas prevailing for a time, drive-in movie monsters another time—and even other comic books, particularly the EC horror line.[22] Atlas also published a plethora of children's and teen humor titles, including Dan DeCarlo's Homer the Happy Ghost (à la Casper the Friendly Ghost) and Homer Hooper (à la Archie Andrews). Atlas unsuccessfully attempted to revive superheroes from late 1953 to mid-1954, with the Human Torch (art by Syd Shores and Dick Ayers, variously), the Sub-Mariner (drawn and most stories written by Bill Everett), and Captain America (writer Stan Lee, artist John Romita Sr.). Atlas did not achieve any breakout hits and, according to Stan Lee, the company survived their first two decades chiefly because they produced work quickly, cheaply, and at a passable quality.[23]The Fantastic Four 1 (Nov. 1961). Cover art by Jack Kirby (penciler) and unconfirmed inker.Marvel ComicsThe first modern comic books under the Marvel Comics brand were the science-fiction anthology Journey into Mystery 69 and the teen-humor title Patsy Walker 95 (both cover dated June 1961), which each displayed an "MC" box on its cover.[24] Then, in the wake of DC Comics' success in reviving superheroes in the late 1950s and early 1960s, particularly with the Flash, Green Lantern, and other members of the team the Justice League of America, Marvel followed suit.[n 1]The introduction of modern Marvel's first superhero team, in The Fantastic Four 1, (Nov. 1961),[25] began establishing the company's reputation which eventually ushered in The Marvel Age Of Comics in the 1960s. The majority of its superhero titles were written by editor-in-chief Stan Lee, who restored the original adult sensibility and appeal of the superhero genre from its late 1930s roots back into the market. The company still continued to publish a smattering of Western comics such as Rawhide Kid, humor comics such as Millie the Model, and added the war comic Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos to its lineup.Editor-writer Lee and freelance artist Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four, reminiscent of the non-superpowered adventuring quartet the Challengers of the Unknown that Kirby had created for DC in 1957, originated in a Cold War culture that led their creators to revise the superhero conventions of previous eras to better reflect the psychological spirit of their age.[26] Eschewing such comic book tropes as secret identities and even costumes at first, having a monster as one of the heroes, and having its characters bicker and complain in what was later called a "superheroes in the real world" approach, the series represented a change that proved to be a great success.[27] Marvel began publishing further superhero titles featuring such heroes and antiheroes as the Hulk, Spider-Man, Thor, Ant-Man, Iron Man, the X-Men, Daredevil, and the Silver Surfer, and such memorable antagonists as Doctor Doom, Magneto, Galactus, Loki, the Green Goblin, and Doctor Octopus, all existing in a shared reality known as the Marvel Universe, with locations that mirror real-life cities such as New York, Los Angeles and Chicago.[28]Lee and Steve Ditko generated the most successful new series in The Amazing Spider-Man. Marvel even lampooned itself and other comics companies in a parody comic, Not Brand Echh (a play on Marvel's dubbing of other companies as "Brand Echh", à la the then-common phrase "Brand X").[29]Marvel's comics had a reputation for focusing on characterization to a greater extent than most superhero comics before them.[30] This applied to The Amazing Spider-Man in particular. Its young hero suffered from self-doubt and mundane problems like any other teenager. Marvel often presents flawed superheroes, freaks, and misfits—unlike the perfect, handsome, athletic heroes found in previous traditional comic books. Some Marvel heroes looked like villains and monsters. In time, this non-traditional approach would revolutionize comic books. This naturalistic approach even extended into topical politics. Wrote comics historian Mike Benton,In the world of [rival DC Comics'] Superman comic books, communism did not exist. Superman rarely crossed national borders or involved himself in political disputes.[31] From 1962 to 1965, there were more communists [in Marvel Comics] than on the subscription list of Pravda. Communist agents attack Ant-Man in his laboratory, red henchmen jump the Fantastic Four on the moon, and Viet Cong guerrillas take potshots at Iron Man.[32]In 2009 writer Geoff Boucher reflected that, "Superman and DC Comics instantly seemed like boring old Pat Boone; Marvel felt like The Beatles and the British Invasion. It was Kirby's artwork with its tension and psychedelia that made it perfect for the times—or was it Lee's bravado and melodrama, which was somehow insecure and brash at the same time?"[33]The Avengers 4 (March 1964), with (from left to right), the Wasp, Giant-Man, Captain America, Iron Man, Thor and (inset) the Sub-Mariner. Cover art by Jack Kirby and George Roussos.Cadence Industries ownershipIn 1968, while selling 50 million comic books a year, company founder Goodman revised the constraining distribution arrangement with Independent News he had reached under duress during the Atlas years, allowing him now to release as many titles as demand warranted.[19] In the fall of that year he sold Marvel Comics and his other publishing businesses to the Perfect Film and Chemical Corporation, which grouped them as the subsidiary Magazine Management Company, with Goodman remaining as publisher.[34] In 1969, Goodman finally ended his distribution deal with Independent by signing with Curtis Circulation Company.[19]In 1971, the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare approached Marvel Comics editor-in-chief Stan Lee to do a comic book story about drug abuse. Lee agreed and wrote a three-part Spider-Man story portraying drug use as dangerous and unglamorous. However, the industry's self-censorship board, the Comics Code Authority, refused to approve the story because of the presence of narcotics, deeming the context of the story irrelevant. Lee, with Goodman's approval, published the story regardless in The Amazing Spider-Man 96–98 (May–July 1971), without the Comics Code seal. The market reacted well to the storyline, and the CCA subsequently revised the Code the same year.[35]Howard the Duck 8 (January 1977). Cover art by Gene Colan and Steve LeialohaGoodman retired as publisher in 1972 and installed his son, Chip, as publisher,[36] Shortly thereafter, Lee succeeded him as publisher and also became Marvel's president[36] for a brief time.[37] During his time as president, he appointed as editor-in-chief Roy Thomas, who added "Stan Lee Presents" to the opening page of each comic book.[36]A series of new editors-in-chief oversaw the company during another slow time for the industry. Once again, Marvel attempted to diversify, and with the updating of the Comics Code achieved moderate to strong success with titles themed to horror (The Tomb of Dracula), martial arts, (Shang-Chi: Master of Kung Fu), sword-and-sorcery (Conan the Barbarian, Red Sonja), satire (Howard the Duck) and science fiction (2001: A Space Odyssey, "Killraven" in Amazing Adventures, Star Trek, and, late in the decade, the long-running Star Wars series). Some of these were published in larger-format black and white magazines, under its Curtis Magazines imprint. Marvel was able to capitalize on its successful superhero comics of the previous decade by acquiring a new newsstand distributor and greatly expanding its comics line. Marvel pulled ahead of rival DC Comics in 1972, during a time when the price and format of the standard newsstand comic were in flux.[38] Goodman increased the price and size of Marvel's November 1971 cover-dated comics from 15 cents for 36 pages total to 25 cents for 52 pages. DC followed suit, but Marvel the following month dropped its comics to 20 cents for 36 pages, offering a lower-priced product with a higher distributor discount.[39]Goodman, now disconnected from Marvel, set up a new company called Seaboard Periodicals in 1974, reviving Marvel's old Atlas name for a new Atlas Comics line, but this lasted only a year and a half.[40] In the mid-1970s a decline of the newsstand distribution network affected Marvel. Cult hits such as Howard the Duck fell victim to the distribution problems, with some titles reporting low sales when in fact the first specialty comic book stores resold them at a later date.[citation needed] But by the end of the decade, Marvel's fortunes were reviving, thanks to the rise of direct market distribution—selling through those same comics-specialty stores instead of newsstands.Marvel held its own comic book convention, Marvelcon '75, in spring 1975, and promised a Marvelcon '76. At the 1975 event, Stan Lee used a Fantastic Four panel discussion to announce that Jack Kirby, the artist co-creator of most of Marvel's signature characters, was returning to Marvel after having left in 1970 to work for rival DC Comics.[41] In October 1976, Marvel, which already licensed reprints in different countries, including the UK, created a superhero specifically for the British market. Captain Britain debuted exclusively in the UK, and later appeared in American comics.[42]Marvel Super Heroes Secret Wars 1 (May 1984). Cover art by Mike Zeck.[43]In 1978, Jim Shooter became Marvel's editor-in-chief. Although a controversial personality, Shooter cured many of the procedural ills at Marvel, including repeatedly missed deadlines. During Shooter's nine-year tenure as editor-in-chief, Chris Claremont and John Byrne's run on the Uncanny X-Men and Frank Miller's run on Daredevil became critical and commercial successes.[citation needed] Shooter brought Marvel into the rapidly evolving direct market,[44] institutionalized creator royalties, starting with the Epic Comics imprint for creator-owned material in 1982; introduced company-wide crossover story arcs with Contest of Champions and Secret Wars; and in 1986 launched the ultimately unsuccessful New Universe line to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the Marvel Comics imprint. Star Comics, a children-oriented line differing from the regular Marvel titles, was briefly successful during this period.Despite Marvel's successes in the early 1980s, it lost ground to rival DC in the latter half of the decade as many former Marvel stars defected to the competitor. DC scored critical and sales victories[45] with titles and limited series such as Watchmen, Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, Crisis on Infinite Earths, Byrne's revamp of Superman, and Alan Moore's Swamp Thing.Marvel Entertainment Group ownershipIn 1986, Marvel's parent, Marvel Entertainment Group, was sold to New World Entertainment, which within three years sold it to MacAndrews and Forbes, owned by Revlon executive Ronald Perelman.Spider-Man 1, later renamed "Peter Parker: Spider-Man" (August 1990; second printing). Cover art by Todd McFarlane.Marvel earned a great deal of money and recognition during the comic book boom of the early 1990s, launching the successful 2099 line of comics set in the future (Spider-Man 2099, etc.) and the creatively daring though commercially unsuccessful Razorline imprint of superhero comics created by novelist and filmmaker Clive Barker.[46][47] In 1990 Marvel began selling Marvel Universe Cards with trading card maker SkyBox International. These were collectible trading cards that featured the characters and events of the Marvel Universe. The 1990s saw the rise of variant covers, cover enhancements, swimsuit issues, and company-wide crossovers that affected the overall continuity of the fictional Marvel UniverseMarvel suffered a blow in early 1992, when seven of its most prized artists—Todd McFarlane (known for his work on Spider-Man), Jim Lee (X-Men), Rob Liefeld (X-Force), Marc Silvestri (Wolverine), Erik Larsen (The Amazing Spider-Man), Jim Valentino (Guardians of the Galaxy), and Whilce Portacio—left to form Image Comics.[48]In 1996, Marvel had almost all its titles participate in the "Onslaught Saga", a crossover that allowed Marvel to relaunch some of its flagship, and now flagging, characters such as the Avengers and the Fantastic Four, and outsource them to the studios of two of the former Marvel artists turned Image Comics founders, Jim Lee and Rob Liefeld. The relaunched titles were a solid success amidst a generally struggling industry,[49] but Marvel discontinued the experiment after a one-year run and returned the characters to the Marvel Universe proper. In 1998, the company launched the imprint Marvel Knights, taking place within Marvel continuity; helmed by soon-to-become editor-in-chief Joe Quesada, it featured tough, gritty stories showcasing such characters as the Inhumans, Black Panther and Daredevil.Marvel's logo, circa 1990sIn late 1994, Marvel acquired the comic book distributor Heroes World Distribution to use as its own exclusive distributor.[50] As the industry's other major publishers made exclusive distribution deals with other companies, the ripple effect resulted in the survival of only one other major distributor in North America, Diamond Comic Distributors Inc.[51][52] In early 1997, when Marvel's Heroes World endeavor failed, Diamond also forged an exclusive deal with Marvel[53]—giving the company its own section of its comics catalog Previews.[54]In 1991 Ronald Perelman, whose company, Andrews Group, had purchased Marvel Comic's Parent corporation, Marvel Entertainment Group (MEG) in 1989, took the company public. Following the rapid rise of this stock, Perelman issued a series of junk bonds that he used to acquire other entertainment companies, secured by MEG stock. Then, by the middle of the decade, the industry had slumped, and in December 1996 Marvel filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.[55]Marvel EnterprisesIn 1997, Toy Biz and MEG merged to end the bankruptcy, forming a new corporation, Marvel Enterprises.[55] With his business partner Avi Arad, publisher Bill Jemas, and editor-in-chief Bob Harras, Toy Biz co-owner Isaac Perlmutter helped stabilize the comics line.[56]With the new millennium, Marvel Comics emerged from bankruptcy and again began diversifying its offerings. In 2001, Marvel withdrew from the Comics Code Authority and established its own Marvel Rating System for comics. The first title from this era to not have the code was X-Force 119 (October 2001). Marvel also created new imprints, such as MAX (an explicit-content line) and Marvel Adventures (developed for child audiences). In addition, the company created an alternate universe imprint, Ultimate Marvel, that allowed the company to reboot its major titles by revising and updating its characters to introduce to a new generation.Some of its characters have been turned into successful film franchises, such as the X-Men movie series, starting in 2000, and the highest grossing series Spider-Man, beginning in 2002.[57]In a cross-promotion, the November 1, 2006, episode of the CBS soap opera The Guiding Light, titled "She's a Marvel", featured the character Harley Davidson Cooper (played by Beth Ehlers) as a superheroine named the Guiding Light.[58] The character's story continued in an eight-page backup feature, "A New Light", that appeared in several Marvel titles published November 1 and 8.[59] Also that year, Marvel created a wiki on its Web site.[60]In late 2007 the company launched Marvel Digital Comics Unlimited, a digital archive of over 2,500 back issues available for viewing, for a monthly or annual subscription fee.[61]In 2009 Marvel Comics closed its Open Submissions Policy, in which the company had accepted unsolicited samples from aspiring comic book artists, saying the time-consuming review process had produced no suitably professional work.[62] The same year, the company commemorated its 70th anniversary, dating to its inception as Timely Comics, by issuing the one-shot Marvel Mystery Comics 70th Anniversary Special 1 and a variety of other special issues.[63][64]Disney conglomerate unitWriters of Marvel titles in the 2010s include (seated left to right) Ed Brubaker, Christos Gage, Matt Fraction and Brian Michael Bendis.On August 31, 2009, The Walt Disney Company announced a deal to acquire Marvel Comics' parent corporation, Marvel Entertainment, for $4 billion[65] or $4.2 billion,[66] with Marvel shareholders to receive $30 and 0.745 Disney shares for each share of Marvel they own.[65] As of 2008, Marvel and its major, longtime competitor DC Comics shared over 80% of the American comic-book market.[67] As of September 2010, Marvel switched its bookstores distribution company from Diamond Book Distributors to Hachette Distribution Services.[68]Marvel relaunched the CrossGen imprint, owned by Disney Publishing Worldwide, in March 2011.[69] Marvel and Disney Publishing began jointly publishing Disney/Pixar Presents magazine that May.[70]Marvel discontinued its Marvel Adventures imprint in March 2012,[71] and replaced them with a line of two titles connected to the Marvel Universe TV block.[72] Also in March, Marvel announced its Marvel ReEvoultion initiative that included Infinite Comics,[73] a line of digital comics, Marvel AR, an application software that provides an augmented reality experience to readers and Marvel NOW!, a relaunch of most of the company's major titles with different creative teams.[74][75] Marvel NOW! also saw the debut of new flagship titles including Uncanny Avengers and All-New X-Men.[76]A couple of joint comic projects were announced by Marvel and other Disney conglomerate components in 2013. With ABC, an "Once Upon a Time" graphic novel was announced in April to be published on September 4.[77] With Disney, the company announced in October 2013 that in January 2014 its first title under their joint "Disney Kingdoms" imprint "Seekers of the Weird", a five issue miniseries, would be released.[66] On January 3, 2014, Disney, via Marvel's corporate sibling Lucasfilm Limited, LLC (owners of the Star Wars and Indiana Jones franchises), announced that as of 2015, Star Wars comics would once again be published by Marvel.[78]OfficersMichael Z. Hobson, Executive Vice President, Publishing[79] Group vice-president, publishing (1986)[80]Stan Lee, executive vice president publisher (1986)[80]Joseph Calamari, executive vice president (1986)[80]Jim Shooter, vice president and Editor-in-Chief (1986)[80]PublishersAbraham Goodman 1939[8] – ?Martin Goodman ? – 1972[36]Charles "Chip" Goodman 1972[36]Stan Lee 1972 – October 1996[36][37][79]Shirrell Roades October 1996 – October 1998[79]Winston Fowlkes February 1998 – November 1999[79]Bill Jemas February 2000 – 2003[79]Dan Buckley 2003–present[81]Editors-in-chiefMarvel's chief editor originally held the title of "editor". This head editor's title later became "editor-in-chief". Joe Simon was the company's first true chief-editor, with publisher Martin Goodman, who had served as titular editor only and outsourced editorial operations.In 1994 Marvel briefly abolished the position of editor-in-chief, replacing Tom DeFalco with five group editors-in-chief. As Carl Potts described the 1990s editorial arrangement:In the early '90s, Marvel had so many titles that there were three Executive Editors, each overseeing approximately 1/3 of the line. Bob Budiansky was the third Executive Editor [following the previously appointed Mark Gruenwald and Potts]. We all answered to Editor-in-Chief Tom DeFalco and Publisher Mike Hobson. All three Executive Editors decided not to add our names to the already crowded credits on the Marvel titles. Therefore it wasn't easy for readers to tell which titles were produced by which Executive Editor ... In late '94, Marvel reorganized into a number of different publishing divisions, each with its own Editor-in-Chief.[82]Marvel reinstated the overall editor-in-chief position in 1995 with Bob Harras.EditorMartin Goodman (1939–1940; titular only)[8]Joe Simon (1940–1941)Stan Lee (1941–1942)Vincent Fago (acting editor during Lee's military service) (1942–1945)Stan Lee (1945–1972)Roy Thomas (1972–1974)Len Wein (1974–1975)Marv Wolfman (black-and-white magazines 1974–1975, entire line 1975–1976)Gerry Conway (1976)Archie Goodwin (1976–1978)Editor-in-chiefJim Shooter (1978–1987)Tom DeFalco (1987–1994)No overall; separate group editors-in-chief (1994–1995)Mark Gruenwald, Universe (Avengers Cosmic)Bob Harras, MutantBob Budiansky, Spider-ManBobbie Chase, Marvel EdgeCarl Potts, Epic Comics general entertainment[82]Bob Harras (1995–2000)Joe Quesada (2000–2011)Axel Alonso (2011–present)Executive EditorOriginally called associate editor when Marvel's chief editor just carried the title of editor, the title of the next highest editorial position became executive editor under the chief editor title of editor-in-chief. The title of associate editor later was revived under the editor-in-chief as an editorial position in charge of few titles under the direction of an editor and without an assistant editor.Associate EditorChris Claremont[citation needed]?–1976Jim Shooter January 5, 1976 – January 2, 1978[83]Executive EditorTom DeFalco 1987Mark Gruenwald 1987–1994, senior editor 1995–1996Carl Potts Epic 1989–1994,[82] 1995–Bob Budiansky early '90s – 1994[82]Bobbie Chase 1995–2001Tom Brevoort 2007–present[84]Axel Alonso 2010 – January 2011[85]OwnershipMartin Goodman (1961–1968)Parent CorporationMagazine Management Co. (1968–1973)Cadence Industries (1973–1986)Marvel Entertainment Group (1986–1998)Marvel EnterprisesMarvel Enterprises, Inc. (1998–2005)Marvel Entertainment, Inc (2005–2009)Marvel Entertainment, LLC (2009–present)OfficesLocated in New York City, Marvel has had successive headquarters:in the McGraw-Hill Building,[8][86] where it originated as Timely Comics in 1939in suite 1401 of the Empire State Building[86]at 635 Madison Avenue (the actual location, though the comic books' indicia listed the parent publishing-company's address of 625 Madison Ave.)[86]575 Madison Avenue;[86]387 Park Avenue South[86]10 East 40th Street[86]417 Fifth Avenue[86]a 60,000-square-foot (5,600 m2) space at 135 W. 50th Street[87][88]Marvel characters in other mediaMarvel characters and stories have been adapted to many other media. Some of these adaptations were produced by Marvel Comics and its sister company, Marvel Studios, while others were produced by companies licensing Marvel material.FilmsMain article: List of films based on Marvel ComicsAs of the start of the 2013 summer movie season, films based on Marvel's properties represent the highest-grossing U.S. franchise, having grossed over $5.4 billion as part of a worldwide gross of over $12 billion.[89]Television programsMain article: List of television series based on Marvel ComicsMany television series, both live-action and animated, have based their productions on Marvel Comics characters. These include multiple series for popular characters such as Spider-Man, Iron Man and the X-Men. Additionally, a handful of television movies, usually also pilots, based on Marvel Comics characters have been made.Video gamesMain article: List of video games based on Marvel ComicsMarvel has licensed a number of video games of various genres. Some entries have been popular arcade games like Captain America and The Avengers, Spider-Man: The Video Game and X-Men. Other installments have been the recent Marvel Ultimate Alliance strategy games, and the long-standing fighting game series Marvel vs. Capcom. Marvel also made a series of digital comics that serve as prequels to Disney Epic Mickey.[citation needed] The same game has been remodeled as an arcade game as well.[citation needed]In June 2012, Club Penguin, an affiliate of Marvel through Disney, added Marvel characters to the online game.[90]On September 23rd 2014, Disney Infinity a sandbox video game, will release the 2.0 edition of the game. It will include Marvel Superheroes. It will have the Avengers Play Set, the Spider Man Play Set, and the Guardians of the Galaxy Play Set.Prose novelsMain articles: Marvel Books and Marvel PressMarvel first licensed two prose novels to Bantam Books, who printed The Avengers Battle the Earth Wrecker by Otto Binder (1967) and Captain America: The Great Gold Steal by Ted White (1968). Various publishers took up the licenses from 1978 to 2002. Also, with the various licensed films being released beginning in 1997, various publishers put out movie novelizations.[91] In 2003, following publication of the prose young adult novel Mary Jane, starring Mary Jane Watson from the Spider-Man mythos, Marvel announced the formation of the publishing imprint Marvel Press.[92] However, Marvel moved back to licensing with Pocket Books from 2005 to 2008.[91] With few books issued under the imprint, Marvel and Disney Books Group relaunched Marvel Press in 2011 with the Marvel Origin Storybooks line.[93]Role-playing gamesTSR published the pen-and-paper role-playing game Marvel Super Heroes in 1984. TSR then released the Marvel Super Heroes Adventure Game in 1998. In 2003 Marvel Publishing published its own role-playing game, the Marvel Universe Roleplaying Game.[94]In August 2011 Margaret Weis Productions announced it was developing a tabletop role-playing game based on the Marvel universe, set for release in February 2012.[95][96]Theme parksMarvel has licensed its characters for theme-parks and attractions, including at the Universal Orlando Resort's Islands of Adventure, in Orlando, Florida, which includes rides based on their iconic characters and costumed performers.[97] Universal theme parks in California and Japan also have Marvel rides.[98]Walt Disney Parks and Resorts plans on creating original Marvel attractions at their theme parks,[99][100] with Hong Kong Disneyland becoming the first Disney theme park to feature a Marvel attraction.[101][102]ImprintsDisney Kingdoms[66]Icon ComicsMarvel ComicsMarvel Press, joint imprint with Disney Books GroupMAXUltimate ComicsInfinite ComicsDefunctAmalgam ComicsCrossGenCurtis Magazines/Marvel Magazine GroupMarvel Monsters GroupEpic Comics (creator owned) (1982–2004)Malibu Comics (1994–1997)Marvel 2099 (1992–1998)Marvel AbsurdMarvel Age/AdventuresMarvel BooksMarvel KnightsMarvel IllustratedMarvel MangaverseMarvel MusicMarvel NextMarvel NoirMarvel UKMC2New UniverseParamount Comics (co-owned with Viacom's Paramount Pictures)RazorlineSoleilStar ComicsTsunamiFormer Marvel Comics lineMarvel EdgeSee alsoBook iconBook: Marvel ComicsList of Marvel Comics publications (A–M)List of Marvel Comics publications (N–Z)List of magazines released by Marvel Comics in the 1970sPanini ComicsSoleil Productions

DC Comics, Inc. is one of the largest and most successful companies operating in the market for American comic books and related media. It is the publishing unit of DC Entertainment,[1] a company of Warner Bros. Entertainment, which itself is owned by Time Warner. DC Comics produces material featuring a large number of well-known characters, including Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern, the Flash, Aquaman, Hawkman, and Green Arrow, along with such superhero teams as the Justice League, the Watchmen, and the Teen Titans, as well as antagonists such as the Joker, Lex Luthor and Catwoman.The initials "DC" came from the company's popular series Detective Comics, which featured Batman's debut and subsequently became part of the company's name.[2] Originally in Manhattan at 432 Fourth Avenue, the DC Comics offices have been located at 480 and later 575 Lexington Avenue; 909 Third Avenue; 75 Rockefeller Plaza; 666 Fifth Avenue; and 1325 Avenue of the Americas. DC has its headquarters at 1700 Broadway, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but it was announced in October 2013 that DC Entertainment would relocate its headquarters from New York to Los Angeles in 2015 (Burbank specifically).[3]Random House distributes DC Comics' books to the bookstore market, while Diamond Comic Distributors supplies the comics shop specialty market.[3] DC Comics and its major, longtime competitor Marvel Comics (owned by Time Warner's main rival The Walt Disney Company since 2009) together shared over 80% of the American comic-book market in 2008.[4]Contents1 History1.1 Origins1.2 The Golden Age1.3 The Silver Age1.4 Kinney National subsidiary1.5 The Bronze Age1.6 Modern Age1.7 Time Warner unit1.8 2000s1.9 DC Entertainment2 Logo3 Imprints3.1 Active as of 20143.2 Defunct3.3 Licensing partnerships, acquired companies, and studios4 See also5 Footnotes6 References7 Further reading8 External linksHistoryOriginsEntrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson's National Allied Publications[5] debuted with the tabloid-sized New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine 1 with a cover date of February 1935.[6] The company's second title, New Comics 1 (Dec. 1935), appeared in a size close to what would become comic books' standard during the period fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books, with slightly larger dimensions than today's.[7] That title evolved into Adventure Comics, which continued through issue 503 in 1983, becoming one of the longest-running comic-book series. In 2009 DC revived it with its original numbering.[8]Wheeler-Nicholson's third and final title, Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936, eventually premiered three months late with a March 1937 cover date. The themed anthology series would become a sensation with the introduction of Batman in issue 27 (May 1939). By then, however, Wheeler-Nicholson had gone. In 1937, in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld — who also published pulp magazines and operated as a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News — Wheeler-Nicholson had to take Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics 1. Detective Comics, Inc. was formed, with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners. Major Wheeler-Nicholson remained for a year, but cash-flow problems continued, and he was forced out. Shortly afterward, Detective Comics Inc. purchased the remains of National Allied, also known as Nicholson Publishing, at a bankruptcy auction.[9]Detective Comics Inc. soon launched a fourth title, Action Comics, the premiere of which introduced Superman. Action Comics 1 (June 1938), the first comic book to feature the new character archetype — soon known as "superheroes" — proved a sales hit. The company quickly introduced such other popular characters as the Sandman and Batman.On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics 1 (June 1938) sold at an auction from an anonymous seller to an anonymous buyer for $1 million dollars, besting the $317,000 record for a comic book set by a different copy, in lesser condition, the previous year.[10]The Golden AgeMain article: Golden Age of Comic BooksNational Allied Publications soon merged with Detective Comics Inc. to form National Comics, which in 1944 absorbed an affiliated concern, Max Gaines' and Liebowitz' All-American Publications. That year, Gaines let Liebowitz buy him out, and kept only Picture Stories from the Bible as the foundation of his own new company, EC Comics. At that point, "Liebowitz promptly orchestrated the merger of All-American and Detective Comics into National Comics... Next he took charge of organizing National Comics, [the self-distributorship] Independent News, and their affiliated firms into a single corporate entity, National Periodical Publications".[11] National Periodical Publications became publicly traded on the stock market in 1961.[12]Despite the official names "National Comics" and "National Periodical Publications", the company began branding itself as "Superman-DC" as early as 1940, and the company became known colloquially as DC Comics for years before the official adoption of that name in 1977.[13]The company began to move aggressively against what it saw as copyright-violating imitations from other companies, such as Fox Comics' Wonder Man, which (according to court testimony) Fox started as a copy of Superman. This extended to DC suing Fawcett Comics over Captain Marvel, at the time comics' top-selling character. Despite the fact that parallels between Captain Marvel and Superman seemed more tenuous (Captain Marvel's powers came from magic, unlike Superman's), the courts ruled that substantial and deliberate copying of copyrighted material had occurred. Faced with declining sales and the prospect of bankruptcy if it lost, Fawcett capitulated in 1955 and ceased comics publication. Years later, Fawcett ironically sold the rights for Captain Marvel to DC — which in 1974 revived Captain Marvel in the new title Shazam! featuring artwork by his creator, C. C. Beck. In the meantime, the abandoned trademark had been seized by Marvel Comics in 1967, disallowing the DC comic itself to be called that. While Captain Marvel did not recapture his old popularity, he later appeared in a Saturday morning live action TV adaptation and gained a prominent place in the mainstream continuity DC calls the DC Universe.When the popularity of superheroes faded in the late 1940s, the company focused on such genres as science fiction, Westerns, humor, and romance. DC also published crime and horror titles, but relatively tame ones, and thus avoided the mid-1950s backlash against such comics. A handful of the most popular superhero-titles, including Action Comics and Detective Comics, the medium's two longest-running titles as of 2013, continued publication.The Silver AgeMain article: Silver Age of Comic BooksIn the mid-1950s, editorial director Irwin Donenfeld and publisher Liebowitz directed editor Julius Schwartz (whose roots lay in the science-fiction book market) to produce a one-shot Flash story in the try-out title Showcase. Instead of reviving the old character, Schwartz had writers Robert Kanigher and John Broome, penciler Carmine Infantino, and inker Joe Kubert create an entirely new super-speedster, updating and modernizing the Flash's civilian identity, costume, and origin with a science-fiction bent. The Flash's reimagining in Showcase 4 (October 1956) proved sufficiently popular that it soon led to a similar revamping of the Green Lantern character, the introduction of the modern all-star team Justice League of America (JLA), and many more superheroes, heralding what historians and fans call the Silver Age of comic books.National did not reimagine its continuing characters (primarily Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman), but radically overhauled them. The Superman family of titles, under editor Mort Weisinger, introduced such enduring characters as Supergirl, Bizarro, and Brainiac. The Batman titles, under editor Jack Schiff, introduced the successful Batwoman, Bat-Girl, Ace the Bat-Hound, and Bat-Mite in an attempt to modernize the strip with non-science-fiction elements. Schwartz, together with artist Infantino, then revitalized Batman in what the company promoted as the "New Look", re-emphasizing Batman as a detective. Meanwhile, editor Kanigher successfully introduced a whole family of Wonder Woman characters having fantastic adventures in a mythological context.DC's introduction of the reimagined superheroes did not go unnoticed by other comics companies. In 1961, with DC's JLA as the specific spur,[n 1] Marvel Comics writer-editor Stan Lee and legendary creator Jack Kirby ushered in the sub-Silver Age "Marvel Age" of comics with the debut issue of The Fantastic Four.[14]Since the 1940s, when Superman, Batman, and many of the company's other heroes began appearing in stories together, DC's characters inhabited a shared continuity that, decades later, was dubbed the "DC Universe" by fans. With the story "Flash of Two Worlds", in Flash 123 (September 1961), editor Schwartz (with writer Gardner Fox and artists Infantino and Joe Giella) introduced a concept that allowed slotting the 1930s and 1940s Golden Age heroes into this continuity via the explanation that they lived on an other-dimensional "Earth 2", as opposed to the modern heroes' "Earth 1" — in the process creating the foundation for what would later be called the DC Multiverse.A 1966 Batman TV show on the ABC network sparked a temporary spike in comic book sales, and a brief fad for superheroes in Saturday morning animation (Filmation created most of DC's initial cartoons) and other media. DC significantly lightened the tone of many DC comics — particularly Batman and Detective Comics — to better complement the "camp" tone of the TV series. This tone coincided with the famous "Go-Go Checks" checkerboard cover-dress which featured a black-and-white checkerboard strip at the top of each comic, a misguided attempt by then-managing editor Irwin Donenfeld to make DC's output "stand out on the newsracks."[15]In 1967, Batman artist Infantino (who had designed popular Silver Age characters Batgirl and the Phantom Stranger) rose from art director to become DC's editorial director. With the growing popularity of upstart rival Marvel Comics threatening to topple DC from its longtime number-one position in the comics industry, he attempted to infuse the company with new titles and characters, also recruiting major talents such as ex-Marvel artist and Spider-Man co-creator Steve Ditko and promising newcomer Neal Adams. He also replaced some existing DC editors with artist-editors, including Joe Kubert and Dick Giordano, to give DC's output a more artistic critical eye.These new editors recruited youthful new creators,[16] in part in an effort to capture a market which had grown from being dominated by children, to include older teens and even college students. Some new talent, such as Dennis O'Neil, who had worked for both Marvel and Charlton, gained critical and popular acclaim on titles including Batman and Green Lantern (his Green Lantern run with artist Neal Adams became a key title in the burgeoning 1970s Bronze Age, and the move away from the Comics Code Authority). Nevertheless, the period was plagued by short-lived series that started out strong but petered out rapidly.Kinney National subsidiaryIn 1967, National Periodical Publications was purchased by Kinney National Company, which later purchased Warner Bros.-Seven Arts and became Warner Communications.[17]In 1970, Jack Kirby moved from Marvel Comics to DC, at the end of the Silver Age of Comics, in which Kirby's contributions to Marvel played a large, integral role. Given carte blanche to write and illustrate his own stories, he created a handful of thematically linked series he called collectively The Fourth World. In the existing series Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen and in his own, newly launched series New Gods, Mister Miracle, and The Forever People, Kirby introduced such enduring characters and concepts as archvillain Darkseid and the otherdimensional realm Apokolips. While sales were respectable, they did not meet DC management's initially high expectations, and also suffered from a lack of comprehension and internal support from Infantino. By 1973 the "Fourth World" was all cancelled, although Kirby's conceptions would soon become integral to the broadening of the DC Universe. Kirby went on to create other series for DC, including Kamandi, about a teenaged boy in a post-apocalyptic world of anthropomorphic talking animals.The Bronze AgeMain article: Bronze Age of Comic BooksFollowing the science-fiction innovations of the Silver Age, the comics of the 1970s and 1980s would become known as the Bronze Age, as fantasy gave way to more naturalistic and sometimes darker themes. Illegal drug use, banned by the Comics Code Authority, explicitly appeared in comics for the first time in Marvel Comics' The Amazing Spider-Man in early 1971, and after the Code's updating in response, DC offered a drug-fueled storyline in writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Neal Adams' Green Lantern, beginning with the story "Snowbirds Don't Fly" in the retitled Green Lantern / Green Arrow 85 (Sept. 1971), which depicted Speedy, the teen sidekick of superhero archer Green Arrow, as having become a heroin addict.Jenette Kahn, a former children's magazine publisher, replaced Infantino as editorial director in January 1976. DC had attempted to compete with the now-surging Marvel by dramatically increasing its output and attempting to win the market by flooding it. This included launching series featuring such new characters as Firestorm and Shade, the Changing Man, as well as an increasing array of non-superhero titles, in an attempt to recapture the pre-Wertham days of post-War comicdom. In June 1978, five months before the release of the first Superman movie, Kahn expanded the line further, increasing the number of titles and story pages, and raising the price from 35 cents to 50 cents. Most series received eight-page back-up features while some had full-length twenty-five page stories. This was a move the company called the "DC Explosion".[18] The move was not successful, however, and corporate partner Warner dramatically cut back on these largely unsuccessful titles, firing many staffers in what industry watchers dubbed "the DC Implosion."[19] In September 1978, the line was dramatically reduced and standard-size books returned to 17 story pages but for a still-increased 40 cents.[20] By 1980, the books returned to 50 cents with a 25-page story count but the story pages replaced house ads in the books.Seeking new ways to boost market share, the new team of publisher Kahn, vice-president Paul Levitz, and managing editor Giordano addressed the issue of talent instability. To that end — and following the example of Atlas/Seaboard Comics[21] and such independent companies as Eclipse Comics — DC began to offer royalties in place of the industry-standard work-for-hire agreement in which creators worked for a flat fee and signed away all rights, giving talent a financial incentive tied to the success of their work. In addition, emulating the era's new television form, the miniseries while addressing the matter of an excessive number of ongoing titles fizzling out within a few issues of their start, DC created the industry concept of the comic book limited series. This publishing format allowed for the deliberate creation of finite storylines within a more flexible publishing format that could showcase creations without forcing the talent into unsustainable openended commitments.These changes in policy shaped the future of the medium as a whole, and in the short term allowed DC to entice creators away from rival Marvel, and encourage stability on individual titles. In November 1980 DC launched the ongoing series The New Teen Titans, by writer Marv Wolfman and artist George Pérez, two popular talents with a history of success. Their superhero-team comic, superficially similar to Marvel's ensemble series X-Men, but rooted in DC history, earned significant sales[22] in part due to the stability of the creative team, who both continued with the title for six full years. In addition, Wolfman and Pérez took advantage of the limited-series option to create a spin-off title, Tales of the New Teen Titans, to present origin stories of their original characters without having to break the narrative flow of the main series or oblige them to double their work load with another ongoing title.Modern AgeMain article: Modern Age of Comic BooksThis successful revitalization of the Silver Age Teen Titans led DC's editors[citation needed] to seek the same for the wider DC Universe. The result, the Wolfman/Pérez 12-issue limited series Crisis on Infinite Earths, gave the company an opportunity to realign and jettison some of the characters' complicated backstory and continuity discrepancies. A companion publication, two volumes entitled The History of the DC Universe, set out the revised history of the major DC characters. Crisis featured many key deaths that would shape the DC Universe for the following decades, and separate the timeline of DC publications into pre- and post-"Crisis".Meanwhile, a parallel update had started in the non-superhero and horror titles. Since early 1984, the work of British writer Alan Moore had revitalized the horror series The Saga of the Swamp Thing, and soon numerous British writers, including Neil Gaiman and Grant Morrison, began freelancing for the company. The resulting influx of sophisticated horror-fantasy material led to DC in 1993 establishing the Vertigo mature-readers imprint, which did not subscribe to the Comics Code Authority.[citation needed]Two DC limited series, Batman: The Dark Knight Returns by Frank Miller and Watchmen by Moore and artist Dave Gibbons, drew attention in the mainstream press for their dark psychological complexity and promotion of the antihero.[citation needed] These titles helped pave the way for comics to be more widely accepted in literary-criticism circles and to make inroads into the book industry, with collected editions of these series as commercially successful trade paperbacks.[citation needed]The mid-1980s also saw the end of many long-running DC war comics, including series that had been in print since the 1960s. These titles, all with over 100 issues, included Sgt. Rock, G.I. Combat, The Unknown Soldier, and Weird War Tales.Time Warner unitIn March 1989, Warner Communications merged with Time Inc., making DC Comics a subsidiary of Time Warner. In June, the first non-camp Batman movie was released, and DC began publishing its hardcover series of DC Archive Editions, collections of many of their early, key comics series, featuring rare and expensive stories unseen by many modern fans. Restoration for many of the Archive Editions was handled by Rick Keene with color restoration by DC's long-time resident colorist, Bob LeRose. These collections attempted to retroactively credit many of the writers and artists who had worked without much recognition for DC during the early period of comics, when individual credits were few and far between.The comics industry experienced a brief boom in the early 1990s, thanks to a combination of speculative purchasing (mass purchase of the books as collectible items, with intent to resell at a higher value as the rising value of older issues was thought to imply that all comics would rise dramatically in price) and several storylines which gained attention from the mainstream media. DC's extended storylines in which Superman was killed, Batman was crippled, and superhero Green Lantern turned into the supervillain Parallax resulted in dramatically increased sales, but the increases were as temporary as the hero's replacements. Sales dropped off as the industry went into a major slump, while manufactured "collectibles" numbering in the millions replaced quality with quantity until fans and speculators alike deserted the medium in droves.DC's Piranha Press and other imprints (including the mature readers line Vertigo, and Helix, a short-lived science fiction imprint) were introduced to facilitate compartmentalized diversification and allow for specialized marketing of individual product lines. They increased the use of non-traditional contractual arrangements, including the dramatic rise of creator-owned projects, leading to a significant increase in critically lauded work (much of it for Vertigo) and the licensing of material from other companies. DC also increased publication of book-store friendly formats, including trade paperback collections of individual serial comics, as well as original graphic novels.One of the other imprints was Impact Comics from 1991 to 1992 in which the Archie Comics superheroes were licensed and revamped.[23][24] The stories in the line were part of its own shared universe.[25]DC entered into a publishing agreement with Milestone Media that gave DC a line of comics featuring a culturally and racially diverse range of superhero characters. Although the Milestone line ceased publication after a few years, it yielded the popular animated series Static Shock. DC established Paradox Press to publish material such as the large-format Big Book of... series of multi-artist interpretations on individual themes, and such crime fiction as the graphic novel Road to Perdition. In 1998, DC purchased Wildstorm Comics, Jim Lee's imprint under the Image Comics banner, continuing it for many years as a wholly separate imprint - and fictional universe - with its own style and audience. As part of this purchase, DC also began to publish titles under the fledgling WildStorm sub-imprint America's Best Comics (ABC), a series of titles created by Alan Moore, including The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, Tom Strong, and Promethea. Moore strongly contested this situation, and DC eventually stopped publishing ABC.2000sIn March 2003 DC acquired publishing and merchandising rights to the long-running fantasy series Elfquest, previously self-published by creators Wendy and Richard Pini under their WaRP Graphics publication banner. This series then followed another non-DC title, Tower Comics' series T.H.U.N.D.E.R. Agents, in collection into DC Archive Editions. In 2004 DC temporarily acquired the North American publishing rights to graphic novels from European publishers 2000 AD and Humanoids. It also rebranded its younger-audience titles with the mascot Johnny DC, and established the CMX imprint to reprint translated manga. In 2006, CMX took over from Dark Horse Comics publication of the webcomic Megatokyo in print form. DC also took advantage of the demise of Kitchen Sink Press and acquired the rights to much of the work of Will Eisner, such as his The Spirit series and his graphic novels.In 2004, DC began laying the groundwork for a full continuity-reshuffling sequel to Crisis on Infinite Earths, promising substantial changes to the DC Universe (and side-stepping the 1994 Zero Hour event which similarly tried to ret-con the history of the DCU). In 2005, the critically lauded Batman Begins film was released; also, the company published several limited series establishing increasingly escalated conflicts among DC's heroes, with events climaxing in the Infinite Crisis limited series. Immediately after this event, DC's ongoing series jumped forward a full year in their in-story continuity, as DC launched a weekly series, 52, to gradually fill in the missing time. Concurrently, DC lost the copyright to "Superboy" (while retaining the trademark) when the heirs of Jerry Siegel used a provision of the 1976 revision to the copyright law to regain ownership.In 2005, DC launched its "All-Star" line (evoking the title of the 1940s publication), designed to feature some of the company's best-known characters in stories that eschewed the long and convoluted continuity of the DC Universe. The line began with All-Star Batman Robin the Boy Wonder and All-Star Superman, with All Star Wonder Woman and All Star Batgirl announced in 2006 but neither being released or scheduled as of the end of 2009.[26]DC licensed characters from the Archie Comics imprint Red Circle Comics by 2007.[27] They appeared in the Red Circle line, based in the DC Universe, with a series of one-shots followed by a miniseries that lead into two ongoing titles, each lasting 10 issues.[25][28]DC EntertainmentIn September 2009, Warner Bros. announced that DC Comics would become a subsidiary of DC Entertainment, Inc., with Diane Nelson, President of Warner Premiere, becoming president of the newly formed company and DC Comics President and Publisher Paul Levitz moving to the position of Contributing Editor and Overall Consultant there.[29]On February 18, 2010, DC Entertainment named Jim Lee and Dan DiDio as Co-Publishers of DC Comics, Geoff Johns as Chief Creative Officer, John Rood as EVP of Sales, Marketing and Business Development, and Patrick Caldon as EVP of Finance and Administration.[30][31]DC licensed pulp characters including Doc Savage and the Spirit which it then used, along with some DC heroes, as part the First Wave comics line launched in 2010 and lasting through fall 2011.[32][33][34]In May 2011, DC announced it would begin releasing digital versions of their comics on the same day as paper versions.[35]On June

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